Title: Altitude

1. Hypoxia is best defined as

*a. oxygen deficiency

b. reduced barometric pressure

c. decreased blood flow

d. difficulty breathing

 

Title: Altitude

2. The major impact of altitude on exercise physiology is attributable to

a. reduced PCO2

b. increased PCO2

*c. reduced PO2

d. increased PO2

 

Title: Altitude

3. Barometric pressure on Earth

a. remains constant

*b. varies slightly with changes in climatic conditions

c. does not vary according to the time of year

d. a and c

 

Title: Altitude

4. As altitude increases,

a. the percentage of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen decreases

b. the partial pressure of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen increases

*c. the partial pressure of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen is reduced in direct proportion with increasing altitude

d. the cold air is capable of holding more moisture (water) than dry air

 

Title: Altitude

5. High-altitude training and physical activity

a. may lead to dehydration

b. promote evaporation of skin moisture

c. increase respiratory losses of moisture to the air

*d. All of these are correct.

 

Title: Altitude

6. Which of the following is incorrect in relation to activity at high altitude?

*a. The high water vapor pressure at high altitude promotes evaporation of moisture from the skin.

b. The intensity of solar radiation increases with high altitude.

c. Air temperature decreases as altitude increases.

d. The atmosphere is thinner and drier at altitude.

 

Title: Altitude

7. In response to exposure to high altitude,

a. pulmonary ventilation decreases

b. chemoreceptors are stimulated by low PO2 and therefore decrease pulmonary ventilation

*c. pulmonary ventilation is increased primarily by increases in tidal volume

d. chemoreceptors are stimulated by high PCO2 and therefore increase pulmonary ventilation

 

Title: Altitude

8. In respiratory alkalosis,

a. the oxyhemoglobin curve shifts to the left

b. CO2 diffuses out of the blood and into the lungs where it is exhaled

c. blood pH is increased

*d. All of these are correct.

e. Only a and c

 

Title: Altitude

9. Hypoxemia at high altitudes

*a. is a direct reflection of lower alveolar PO2

b. is a result of reduced diffusion of oxygen from the lungs to the blood

c. is a direct reflection of lower alveolar PCO2

d. is a direct result of decreases in pulmonary ventilation

 

Title: Altitude

10. The oxyhemoglobin curve shifts to the                             .

a. left with increasing altitude

b. right with increasing altitude

c. left with respiratory alkalosis

*d. a and c

e. b and c

 

Title: Altitude

11. The pressure gradient for gas exhange at the level of the muscles at high altitudes

*a. is significantly reduced

b. remains similar to sea-level conditions

c. is slightly increased

d. is significantly increased

 

Title: Altitude

12. An acute response to high-altitude exposure is

*a. a decrease in plasma volume

b. a decrease in the concentration of red blood cells

c. a lower hematocrit

d. All of these are correct.

 

Title: Altitude

13. Chronic exposure to high altitude triggers the release of                          that stimulates red blood cell production.

a. epinephrine

*b. erythropoietin

c. norepinephrine

d. hemoglobin

 

Title: Altitude

14. Altitude exposure causes increased red blood cell production because of increased release of

a. aldosterone

b. growth hormone

c. ADH

*d. erythropoietin

 

Title: Altitude

15. An acute response to high-altitude exposure is

a. stimulation of the PSNS

b. stimulation of the SNS

c. the release of epinephrine and norepinephrine

d. a and c

*e. b and c

 

Title: Altitude

16. An acute response to high-altitude exposure during submaximal exercise is

a. a decrease in heart rate

*b. a decrease in stroke volume

c. a slight decrease in cardiac output

d. All of these are correct.

 

Title: Altitude

17. A chronic adaptation to high altitude during submaximal exericse is

*a. an increase in arterial–venous oxygen difference

b. a continued increase in cardiac output

c. decreased pulmonary ventilation

d. None of these is correct.

 

Title: Altitude

18. During maximal or exhaustive exercise at high altitudes,

a. maximal stroke volume is higher

b. maximal heart rate is slightly higher

*c. maximal cardiac output decreases

d. maximal aerobic capacity is increased

 

Title: Altitude

19. When an athlete is competing at altitude, the event in which that person would most likely suffer from poor performance is the

a. 100-meter dash

*b. marathon

c. shot put

d. high jump

 

Title: Altitude

20. Ascent to altitude

*a. increases basal metabolic rate

b. increases appetite

c. leads to weight gain

d. All of these are correct.

e. None of these is correct.

 

Title: Altitude

21. Which of the following is (are) true of the environmental challenges faced at high altitudes, compared to sea level?

a. Eyes and skin must be protected from an increased intensity of solar radiation.

b. Temperatures tend to feel colder at altitude because of the large amount of moisture in the air at high elevations.

c. Exertion is more difficult because of a reduced partial pressure of oxygen.

*d. a and c

e. b and c

 

Title: Altitude

22. When adapting to altitude, the first adaptation that the body makes is to

*a. decrease plasma volume

b. increase plasma volume

c. increase red blood cells

d. decrease red blood cells

 

Title: Altitude

23. An acute response to high altitude is

a. hypoxia

b. an increase in anaerobic metabolism

c. an increase in lactic acid production

*d. All of these are correct.

 

Title: Altitude

24. With chronic exposure to altitude,

a. lactate concentration in the muscle and venous blood during submaximal exercise is higher

b. muscle oxygen consumption decreases with adaptation to altitude

*c. lactate concentration in the muscle and venous blood during submaximal exercise is lower

d. lactate concentration in the muscle and venous blood during maximal exercise is higher

 

Title: Altitude

25. There is an increased reliance on                for fuel, both at rest and during submaximal exercise

a. fat

*b. carbohydrate

c. protein

 

Title: Altitude

26. A V\od\O2max of 50 ml · kg–1 · min–1 at sea level is reduced to approximately 5 ml · kg–1 · min–1 at the peak of Mount Everest. What is the impact of this reduction?

a. There is no impact, and regular activity can be performed without supplemental oxygen.

b. It is insignificant if the person rests and does not engage in physical activity.

*c. Supplemental oxygen is required simply to sustain resting metabolism.

d. This is a very high sea-level V\od\O2max and this person can perform standard work at the peak with less perceived effort and no supplemental oxygen.

 

Title: Altitude

27. Which of the following is incorrect?

a. Endurance training to increase V\od\O2max at sea level provides a competitive advantage at altitude.

b. An athlete with a higher sea-level V\od\O2max can compete at any given pace at a lower percentage of V\od\O2max.

*c. Thinner air at altitude provides greater aerodynamic resistance to athletes’ movements.

d. Anaerobic sprint activities lasting 2 minutes or less are generally not impaired at moderate altitude.

 

Title: Altitude

28. Chronic exposure to altitude leads to

a. an increase in submaximal cardiac output

b. acid–base readjustment

c. an increase in the blood’s oxygen-carrying capacity

*d. All of these are correct.

 

Title: Altitude

29. Which of the following is incorrect?

a. It takes approximately 3 weeks to approach full acclimatization even at moderate altitude.

*b. Acclimatized athletes are capable of fully compensating for altitude-induced hypoxia.

c. Benefits of altitude training are lost within one month of returning to sea level.

d. Polycythemia may be evident for 3 months or more even if EPO concentrations return to baseline in about 1 month after training at altitude.

 

Title: Altitude

30. Polycythemia results in

*a. more hemoglobin per given volume of blood

b. decreased blood viscosity

c. decreased oxygen-carrying capacity of blood at high altitude

d. enhanced blood flow during exercise

 

Title: Altitude

31. A person’s distance-running performance at high altitude suffers primarily from

*a. reduced partial pressure of oxygen in air

b. reduced concentration of oxygen in air

c. inability to breathe properly

d. All of these are correct.

 

Title: Altitude

32. Muscle adaptations with altitude include

a. decreased cross-sectional area of muscle fiber

b. increased capillary density in the muscle

c. more blood and oxygen delivered to the muscle fibers

d. decreased ability of muscle to generate ATP

*e. All of these are correct.

 

Title: Altitude

33. After several weeks of exposure to altitudes above 2500 m (8200 ft), it has been suggested that

a. metabolic potential of muscle is increased

*b. glycolytic enzyme activity is reduced

c. mitochondrial function is improved

d. muscles increase their capacity to perform oxidative phosphorylation

 

Title: Altitude

34. Recent research appears to support the notion that a person can improve endurance performance at sea level by

a. living at high altitude and training at high altitude

b. living at low altitude and training at high altitude

*c. living at high altitude and training at low altitude

d. living at low altitude and training at low altitude

 

Title: Altitude

35. Strategies for competing at altitude include

a. competing as soon as possible after arriving at altitude (within 24 hours)

b. training at altitude a minimum of 2 weeks before competing.

c. reducing workout intensity between 60 and 70% of sea-level intensity when first arriving at higher altitudes

*d. All of these are correct.

 

Title: Altitude

36. The best strategy for competing at altitude is

*a. competing within the first 24 hours of arriving at altitude

b. training for 2 days at altitude before competing

c. hypoxic training at sea level for 2 days before altitude exposure

d. training for 5 days at altitude before competing

 

Title: Altitude

37. Symptoms of acute mountain sickness include

a. headache

b. dyspnea

c. insomnia

*d. a, b, and c

e. only a and b

 

Title: Altitude

38. High-altitude pulmonary edema is due to

a. pulmonary vasoconstriction caused by hypoxia

b. blood clots forming in the lungs

c. accumulation of fluid in the lungs

*d. All of these are correct.

 

Title: Altitude

39. Signs and symptoms of high-altitude pulmonary edema include

a. dyspnea

b. cyanosis

c. excessive fatigue

d. mental confusion and loss of consciousness

*e. All of these are correct.

 

Title: Altitude

40. A neurological condition characterized by mental confusion, lethargy, and ataxia progressing to unconsciousness and death is

*a. high-altitude cerebral edema

b. high-altitude mountain sickness

c. high-altitude pulmonary edema

d. acute altitude sickness

 

Title: Altitude

41. Acute mountain sickness

a. generally develops within the first four days of altitude exposure

b. can progress to high-altitude pulmonary edema

c. is often fatal

d. is characterized by nausea, headache, vomiting, dyspnea, and/or insomnia

*e. a, b, and d

 

Title: Altitude

42. According to our current knowledge, the use of altitude training by elite endurance athletes to improve their performance at sea level

a. provides considerable benefits

b. provides benefits

*c. provides little or no benefit

d. decreases the ability to perform at sea level

 

Title: Altitude

43. The amount of surface area exposed to the environment is an important factor that determines the effectiveness of evaporative cooling.

*a. true

b. false

 

Title: Altitude

44. Under resting conditions, pulmonary diffusion (diffusion of O2 from the alveoli to the arterial blood) does not limit the exchange of gases between the alveoli and the blood.

*a. true

b. false

 

Title: Altitude

45. Endurance performance at altitude is decreased because of a decreased pressure gradient that hinders oxygen transport to the muscles

*a. true

b. false

 

Title: Altitude

46. At the top of Mount Everest (approximately 29,000 ft above sea level), the percentage of oxygen in the air is much lower than at sea level.

a. true

*b. false

 

Title: Altitude

47. Because of the cooler temperatures at high altitudes, fluid loss through sweating is usually minimized.

a. true

*b. false

 

Title: Altitude

48. The performance of a distance runner who competes in a race at an elevation of about 4,000 feet without first training at altitude is likely to be adversely affected by the altitude.

a. true

*b. false

 

Title: Altitude

49. Peak blood lactate concentrations are generally higher at altitude than at sea level, whereas lactate levels in response to a given submaximal workload above lactate threshold are about the same at altitude as at sea level.

a. true

*b. false

 

Title: Altitude

50. People who climb to high altitudes tend to hyperventilate.

*a. true

b. false

 

Title: Altitude

51. When exercising at altitude, diffusion of O2 and CO2 between the alveoli and the pulmonary capillaries is impaired because of pulmonary hypertension.

a. true

*b. false

 

Title: Altitude

52. Highly trained athletes are less likely to experience altitude sickness than those who are less fit

a. true

*b. false

 

Title: Altitude

53. The absolute humidity at altitude is extremely high because of the change in air temperature.

a. true

*b. false

 

Type: F

Title: Altitude

54. When muscles are deprived of oxygen, they are said to be __________________.

a. hypoxic

 

Type: F

Title: Altitude

55. If the barometric pressure at altitude is 500 mmHg, what is the partial pressure of oxygen?

a. 104.7 mmHg

 

Type: F

Title: Altitude

56. At high altitude, increased breathing results in an unloading of carbon dioxide and a condition known as respiratory ___________________.

a. alkalosis

 

Type: F

Title: Altitude

57. The insomnia often experienced at high altitudes is sometimes the result of a breathing disturbance called _________________________________.

a. Cheyne-Stokes breathing

 

Type: MT

Title: Altitude

58. Match each of the following terms with the most appropriate definition or descriptive phrase.

a. TLV/RV ratio = determines the maximal underwater diving depth to which one can dive safely without special breathing equipment

b. plasma volume = decreases with microgravity exposure

c. pulmonary ventilation = increases during altitude exposure

d. respiratory alkalosis = can occur at altitude as a result of hyperventilation

e. hypobaric = refers to atmospheric pressure lower than that normally encountered at sea level

f. nitrogen narcosis = can impair an underwater diver's judgment

g. decompression sickness = occurs if a scuba diver attempts to ascend too rapidly

h. pulmonary hypertension = occurs during exercise at altitude

i. spontaneous pneumothorax = alveolar rupture and lung collapse resulting from overexpansion of the lungs

j. orthostatic hypotension = can affect astronauts on return to the normal gravity environment of Earth

 

Type: E

Title: Altitude

59. What types of activities are detrimentally influenced by exposure to high altitude, and why?

 

Type: E

Title: Altitude

60. When you ascend to an altitude of over 1500 meters, describe the physiological adjustments that occur within the first 24 hours.

 

Type: E

Title: Altitude

61. Describe the conditions at altitude that could limit physical activity.

 

Type: E

Title: Altitude

62. Describe the physiological adjustments that accompany acclimatization to altitude over a period of 3 weeks.

 

Type: E

Title: Altitude

63. Would an endurance athlete who trained at altitude be able to perform better during subsequent sea-level performance? Why or why not?

 

Type: E

Title: Altitude

64. Describe the theoretical advantage of living high and training low.

 

Type: E

Title: Altitude

65. What are the best strategies for preparing athletes for high-altitude competition?

 

Type: E

Title: Altitude

66. What are the health risks associated with acute exposure to high altitude?

 

Type: E

Title: Altitude

67. Discuss the effects of high altitude on the cardiovascular responses to submaximal and maximal exercise.

 

Type: E

Title: Altitude

68. Can altitude training improve sea-level performance?

 

Type: E

Title: Altitude

69. Describe the impact of prolonged hypoxia on (1) blood volume, (2) cardiac output, and (3) muscle metabolism.

 

Type: E

Title: Altitude

70. Describe the symptoms of acute altitude sickness. Include causes and possible systems that are affected.

 

Type: E

Title: Altitude

71. What are the most important adaptations to altitude? List and describe at least three major changes, and describe the underlying physiology

 

Type: E

Title: Altitude

72. What types of activities are detrimentally influenced by exposure to high altitude, and why?

 

Type: E

Title: Altitude

73. When you ascend to an altitude of over 1500 meters, describe the physiological adjustments that occur within the first 24 hours.

 

Type: E

Title: Altitude

74. Describe the physiological adjustments that accompany acclimatization to altitude over a period of 3 weeks.

 

Type: E

Title: Altitude

75. Would an endurance athlete who trained at altitude be able to perform better during subsequent sea-level performance? Why or why not?

 

Type: E

Title: Altitude

76. What are the best strategies for preparing athletes for high-altitude competition?

 

Type: E

Title: Altitude

77. What are the health risks associated with acute exposure to high altitude?