1. Which must result in a lower base level for rivers and streams?
a. sea level drops; land subsides
b. sea level falls; land rises
c. sea level rises; land subsides
d. sea level rises; land rises
2. Which constituents make up the suspended loads of most rivers and
a. dissolved ions and sand
b. dissolved salts
c. silt- and clay-sized, detrital grains
d. sand and gravel that move during floods
3. Which term describes the total sediment load transported by a stream?
d. hydro-load factor
4. At the head of a delta, the major channel splits into smaller channels
that follow different paths to the sea. What are these smaller channels
5. What is an abandoned, cutoff, meander loop?
a. a bulltrail
b. an oxbow
c. a cowhock
d. a gatorback
6. Many larger rivers in the Colorado Plateau region meander in deep,
narrow canyons and have no floodplains. How could this happen?
a. original, youthful streams continued to downcut as the land rose
b. original, old-age streams downcut as the land gradually rose
c. as sea level dropped, the original youthful streams matured into old-age streams
d. as sea level rose, the original, old-age streams were rejuvenated
7. Where is erosion concentrated along a meandering stream?
a. on the straight channel segments that connect the meander loops
b. on the outer parts of the meander loops or bends
c. at the unconsolidated point bars
d. on the inner banks of the meander loops
8. At the head of a delta, the major river divides into numerous, smaller
channels. What are these smaller channels?
a. outflow channels
b. cutoff chutes
c. intradeltaic rills
9. Which delta beds are essentially cross strata inclined toward deeper
a. backset beds
b. topset beds
c. foreset beds
d. bottomset beds
10. Which term best describes the particle transport mode in streams
intermediate between suspension and rolling along the bottom?
c. impact leaping
11. Which statements about rock deformation and strength are correct?
a. rupture and plastic deformation occur when stresses exceed the elastic limit of a material
b. rocks undergo plastic deformation less readily as temperatures and pressures increase
c. plastic deformation is accomplished through internal flow of material
d. when rocks are subjected to stress for long time periods, very small, plastic deformations accumulate to produce large, permanent, elastic deformations
12. Which fault has little or no vertical movements of the two blocks?
a. stick slip
b. oblique slip
c. strike slip
d. dip slip
13. In which fault deformation does the hangingwall block move up with
respect to the footwall block?
14. Which is the one, correct aspect of thrust faulting? one answer
a. grabens develop on the footwall block
b. the crust is shortened and thickened
c. horizontal, tensional stresses drive the deformation
d. the hangingwall block slips downward along the thrust fault
15. Which are not characteristic of the San Andreas fault zone? one
a. steep, near vertical, dip-slip, fault scarps
b. sag ponds
c. deformed, broken, and pulverized bedrock
d. laterally offset stream channels
16. What is the only correct characterization of a graben? one answer
a. a hangingwall block has moved up between two reverse faults
b. a footwall block has moved up between two normal faults
c. a hangingwall block has moved down between two normal faults
d. a footwall block has moved down between two reverse faults
17. The mountains and valleys of the Basin and Range Province of western
United States formed in response to which tectonic processes? one answer
a. strike-slip faulting and hangingwall block uplifts
b. reverse faults and large displacement, thrust faulting
c. tensional stresses and normal-fault movements
d. normal faulting and horizontal compression
18. Which one describes a normal fault? one answer
a. the hangingwall block below an inclined fault plane moves downward relative to the other block
b. the footwall block below an inclined fault plane moves downward relative to the other block
c. the hangingwall block above an inclined fault plane moves downward relative to the other block
d. the footwall block above an inclined fault plane moves upward relative to the other block
19. Which one describes a reverse fault? one answer
a. an inclined fault along which the hangingwall block has moved up relative to the footwall block
b. an oblique fault along which the block above the fault plane has moved backwards with respect to the other block
c. a vertical fault along which one block moved downward and the other moved horizontally
d. an inclined fault along which both blocks have moved horizontally in opposite directions
20. Which one statement best characterizes joints in rocks? one answer
a. closely spaced, parallel faults along which the blocks have moved in opposite directions
b. structures formed where normal and reverse faults intersect
c. the hinge lines connecting two limbs of an anticline or syncline
d. roughly parallel fractures separating blocks that show no displacement
21. What is a transform fault?
a. a strike-slip fault that forms the boundary between tectonic plates
b. a dip-slip fault connecting an anticline with a syncline
c. a reverse fault that steepens into a thrust fault
d. the rift-bounding faults on a mid-ocean ridge
22. Which best describes a thrust fault?
a. a steeply inclined, oblique-slip fault
b. a low-angle, reverse fault
c. a vertical, normal fault
d. a near vertical, strike-slip fault
23. What is a horst?
a. an uplifted block bounded by two normal faults
b. a downdropped block bounded by two reverse faults
c. an uplifted block bounded by two reverse faults
d. a downdropped block bounded by two normal faults
24. The Michigan geologic map shows older, Paleozoic strata (in roughly
circular patterns) surrounding a core area of Pennsylvanian rocks. What
is this structure?
b. recumbent horst
c. anticline, horizontal axis
d. a basin