# Third Hour Exam

## May 25, 2000

Statistics:

High: 96

Mean: 75

Low: 50

For every question, also consider as a possible answer

E) none of the above
 v = x / t a = v / t v = vi + a t x = xi + vi t + (1/2) a t2 v = r F = m a F12 = - F21 w = mg g = 9.8 m/s2 10 m/s2 p = m v PE = m g h PE = (1/2) k x2 KE = (1/2) m v2 F = k x Ei = Ef pi = pf F = p / t T = 2 T = 2 v = v=(wavelength) x (frequency) L = (n) x (half wavelength)

For every question, also consider as a possible answer

E) none of the above

1. Increasing the amplitude of a mass-and-spring simple harmonic oscillator makes its period

A) longer

B) shorter

C) unchanged

2. Increasing the mass m of a mass-and-spring simple harmonic oscillator makes its period

A) longer

B) shorter

C) unchanged

3. Water waves are

A) longitudinal

B) transverse

C) neither longitudinal nor transverse

D) electromagnetic; Light is an EM wave; we will study light next.

4. A mass-and-spring simple harmonic oscillator has maximum kinetic energy

A) at its equilibrium position

B) when its displacement equals its amplitude

C) half way between equilibrium and amplitude

D) two-thirds of the way between equilibrium and amplitude

5. A mass-and-spring simple harmonic oscillator has maximum potential energy

A) at its equilibrium position

B) when its displacement equals its amplitude

C) half way between equilibrium and amplitude

D) two-thirds of the way between equilibrium and amplitude

6. The amplitude of a simple harmonic oscillator is

A) the time required for one oscillation

B) the number of oscillators per second

C) the energy stored in the oscillations

D) the maximum distance moved from equilibrium

7. The period of a simple pendulum depends upon its

A) mass

B) amplitude

C) length

D) all of the above

8. The period of a certain simple harmonic oscillator is 0.1 s; its frequency is

A) 0.100 Hz

B) 1.00 Hz

C) 10.0 Hz

D) 100. Hz

9. The frequency of a certain oscillator is 20 Hz; its period is

A) 0.5 s

B) 0.05 s

C) 0.005 s

D) 0.0005 s

10. If a carefully calibrated pendulum were over a very large iron or deposit, where the acceleration due to gravity is slightly increased, what would happen to the pendulum's period?

A) increase

B) stay the same

C) decrease

11. Ocean waves and breakers are examples of

A) polarized waves

B) longitudinal waves

C) transverse waves

D) electromechanical waves

E) none of the above

In the Mechanical Universe video, we found that waves and breakers are a different kind of waves -- individual water molecules move in circles.

12. Where is the speed of a simple harmonic oscillator zero?

A) at its equilibrium position

B) where its displacement equals its amplitude

C) half way between equilibrium and amplitude

D) two-thirds of the way between equilibrium and amplitude

13. Like a transverse wave, a longitudinal wave has a/an

A) amplitude

B) wavelength

C) period

D) all of the above

14. Which of the following is a longitudinal wave?

A) light

B) wave on a string

C) sound

D) all of the above

15. The individual vibrations or disturbances of a longitudinal wave move

A) in the same direction as the wave itself

B) perpendicular to the wave itself

C) in small circles

16. A wave has a frequency of 100 Hz and travels 5 m in one second. It has

A) a wave speed of 100 m/s and a wavelength of 20 m.

B) a wave speed of 100 m/s and a wavelength of 1/20 m.

C) a wave speed of 5 m/s and a wavelength of 1/20 m

D) a wave speed of 5 m and a wavelength of 20 m

17. For standing waves, nodes are

A) always a wavelength apart

B) regions of greatest amplitude

C) regions of greatest frequency

D) always two wavelengths apart

E) none of the above

Nodes are always half a wavelength apart.

18. For standing waves, antinodes

A) are a wavelength apart

B) have the greatest frequency

C) alternate with nodes

D) all of the above

19. For standing waves on a string,

A) a node is located at each end

B) a whole number times half the wavelength equals the length of the string

C) the whole "pattern" of standing waves occurs only for certain frequencies

D) all of the above

20. On a string that is 0.5 m long, standing waves may be formed with the following wavelengths:

A) 2.0 m, 1.0 m, 0.5 m

B) 1.0 m, 0.5 m, 0.25 m

C) 1.0 m, 0.75 m, 0.5 m

D) 0.5 m, 0.375 m, 0.25 m

L = n x (half a wavelength)
n = any integer

half a wavelength = L / n

wavelength = 2 L / n

L = 0.5 m

wavelength = 2 x 0.5 m / n = 1.0 m / n

wavelength = 1 m, (1/2) m, (1/3) m, (1/4) m, (1/5) m, (1/6) m, etc

wavelength = 1.0 m, 0.5 m, 0.33 m, 0.25 m, 0.20 m, 0.167 m, etc

21. Standing waves can occur when

A) the frequency equals the wavelength

B) the amplitude exceeds the wavelength

C) a wave's frequency is supersonic

D) a wave's period equals its wavelength

E) none of the above

22. An antinode is

A) always in the middle of a standing wave

B) a position of maximum amplitude

C) a position of minimum amplitude

D) equal to the fundamental frequency

23. Light and sound are both waves. You may see a bolt of lightning long before you hear its thunder. This is because

A) of resonance

B) light travels faster than sound

C) sound requires air to be transmitted and light does not

D) light passes through humid air but sound does not

24. A bobber on a fishing line oscillates up and down four times per second as waves pass by. The waves have a period of

A) (1/4) Hz

B) 4 Hz

C) (1/4) sec

D) 4 sec

25. A bobber on a fishing line oscillates up and down four times per second as waves pass by. The waves have a wavelength of 20 cm. The waves are traveling at

A) 20 cm/s

B) 40 cm/s

C) 80 cm/s

D) 120 cm/s

26. If you put your fingertip in a pool of water and repeatedly move it up and down, you will create circular water waves that move out from that point. What will happen to the wavelength of these waves if you move your finger up and down more rapidly? The wavelength will

A) increase

B) remain the same

C) decrease

27. Sound is

A) an electromagnetic wave

B) a polarized wave

C) a longitudinal wave

D) all of the above

28. Light is or may be

A) an electromagnetic wave

B) a polarized wave

C) a transverse wave

D) all of the above

29. "Supersonic" means

A) lower than the range of human hearing

B) higher than the range of human hearing

C) faster than the speed of sound

D) slower than the speed of sound

30. "Infrasonic" means

A) lower than the range of human hearing

B) higher than the range of human hearing

C) faster than the speed of sound

D) slower than the speed of sound

31. Bats and dolphins use echolocation to navigate or the find food or to find their way without relying on sight. The frequencies they use are

A) supersonic

B) infrasonic

C) ultrasonic

D) microsonic

32. If you double the frequency of a sound wave, you also double its

A) wavelength

B) speed

C) amplitude

D) all of the above

E) none of the above

33. The range of human hearing is about

A) 10 Hz to 100 Hz

B) 50 Hz to 500 Hz

C) 50 Hz to 20 kHz

D) 1 000 Hz to 100 kHz

34. The Concorde aircraft flys faster than sound. We say that it is

A) infrasonic

B) ultrasonic

C) supersonic

D) monosonic

35. The speed of sound in air depends upon

A) wavelength

B) frequency

C) temperature

D) amplitude

36. Increasing the length of a vibrating string will

A) decrease its resonance frequency

B) decrease its amplitude

C) increase its amplitude

D) increase its resonance frequency

37. Ella Fitzgerald made commercials for Memorex in which she used her voice to break a wine glass. This is an example of

A) echolocation

B) reflected sound

C) ultrasound

D) resonance

38. Beats are heard when two sounds have

A) nearly the same amplitude

B) nearly the same frequencies

C) twice the amplitude

D) exactly twice the frequency

39. The fundamental frequency present in a sound is the

A) sum of all the frequencies mixed together

B) difference between the highest and lowest frequencies present

C) lowest frequency present

D) highest frequency present

40. The fundamental frequency present in a sound determines the

A) quality or timbre

B) amplitude or loudness

C) pitch or note

D) none of the above

41. The "pitch" of a sound is determined by its

A) overtone frequency

B) harmonic frequency

C) fundamental frequency

D) resonance frequency

42. The quality or timbre -- the distincitive characteristic -- of a sound is determined by its

A) overtones or harmonics

B) amplitude or loudness

C) attack or decay

D) fundamental frequency

43. You hear beats with a frequency of 2 Hz when you strike a tuning fork that vibrates at 440 Hz and a chime. The chime has a frequency of

A) 440 x 2 Hz = 880 Hz

B) 438 Hz

C) (440 / 2) Hz = 220 Hz

D) 543 Hz

44. The fundamental frequency of a violin string is 440 hertz. The frequency of its second harmonic is

A) 110 Hz

B) 220 Hz

C) 442 Hz

D) 880 Hz

45. Consider a musical note of 512 hertz ("C" on the staff). Two octaves higher is represented by a musical note of

A) 128 Hz

B) 256 Hz

C) 1024 Hz

D) 2048 Hz

46. The intensity or loudness of a musical sound is related to the sound wave's

A) wavelength

B) frequency

C) amplitude

D) wave speed

47. Suppose you play a note of a certain pitch on a violin. You can produce a lower-pitched note by

A) shortening the length of the string that is allowed to vibrate

B) increasing the tension of the string (tightening the string)

C) decreasing the linear mass density of the string (using a "lighter" string)

D) lengthening the part of the string that vibrates.

48. Consider the sound made when you blow across the open top of a soda bottle. Now pour some water into the soda bottle and again blow across the open top of the bottle. With the additional water now in the bottle, you should expect the pitch of the sound produced to be

A) higher

B) lower

49. When a flute sound is viewed on an oscilloscope, the sound wave is very smooth. This is because

A) the amplitude is always small (flutes are quiet)

B) it has practically no overtones

C) its fundamental frequency has a smaller amplitude than its second and third harmonics

D) its harmonics get larger and larger

50. When a trumpet sound is viewed on an oscilloscope, the sound wave is very complex. This is because

A) the amplitude is always large (trumpets are loud)

B) it has practically no overtones

C) it has many overtones

D) its has only even-numbered overtones