**Excursions in Physics
**

October 12, 1999

Enter all your answers in the "scantron sheet" or the "bubble
sheet". Turn in only that sheet. Anything you write on this exam will
not be seen or used or considered or graded. Be sure your name is on
the "bubble sheet" you hand in. Be sure your name is bubbled-in. Be
sure your answers are recorded correctly.

For every question, also consider the following as a possible
answer:

**e) none of the above**

Possibly useful information:

v = x / t

a = v / t

v = v_{i}+ a t

x = x_{i }+ v_{i}t + (^{1}/_{2}) a t^{2}

v = r

F = m a

F_{12}= &endash;F_{21}

w = mg

g = 9.8 m/s^{2}10 m/s^{2}

For every question, also consider the following as a possible
answer:

**e) none of the above**

1. Which of the following has the largest momentum relative to Earth?

a) a tightrope walker crossing Niagara Falls.The tightrope walker hassomemomentum.

b) a truck speeding along a highway.p= mvThis speeding truck has more mass

andgreater velocitythan the tightrope walker of option a).

c) a Mack truck sitting in the parking lot.

With no velocity, the Mack truck hasnomomentum.d) the Science building on campus.

With no velocity, the building hasnomomentum.

2. A moving object on which no forces are acting will continue to move with constant

a) accelerationb) impulse

c) momentumConstant velocity means constant momentum.d) all of these

3. Conservation of momentum is directly related to

a) Newton's First Law of Motionb) Newton's Second Law of Motion

c) Newton's Third Law of Motiond) International shortages of momentum

4. A rifle recoils from firing a bullet. The speed of the rifle's recoil is small because the

a) force against the rifle is smaller than against the bullet.b) momentum of the rifle is smaller than that of the bullet.

c) mass of the rifle is much larger than the mass of the bullet.d) momentum of the rifle is larger than that of the bullet.

5. Two objects, A and B, have the same size and shape, but A is twice as heavy as B. When they are dropped simultaneously from a tower, they reach the ground at the same time, but A has a greater

a) speedb) acceleration

c) momentumd) all of the above

6. A 5 kg ball has a momentum of 30 kg m/s. What is the ball's speed?

a) 3 m/s

b) 6 m/sp = m v

30 kg m/s = (5 kg) ( v )

30 kg m/s = (5 kg) ( 6 m/s )

v = 6 m/sc) 15 m/s

d) 150 m/s

7. If two objects collide and do **not** stick together, their
total momentum after the collision is

a) less than

b) the same asMomentum is always conserved.c) greater than

their total momentum before the collision.

8. If two objects collide and **stick together**, their total
momentum after the collision is

a) less than

b) the same asMomentum is always conserved.c) greater than

their total momentum before the collision.

9. When two objects collide and **stick together**, this type
of collision is known as a

a) totally elastic collision.

b) totally inelastic collision.c) totally natural collision.

d) totally impulsive collision.

10. Momentum is conserved in any collision. In a "totally elastic collision" another quantity is also conserved. That other conserved quantity is the

a) velocity, v

b) kinetic energy, KEc) angular velocity, w

d) work, W

11. Work involves

a) mass multiplied by accelerationb) mass multiplied by distance

c) force multiplied by distanced) force multiplied by time

12. If you push an object twice as far while applying the same force you do

a) half as much work.b) the same amount of work.

c) twice as much work.Work = force x distance

Work= force xdistance

Increasing the distance by two also increased the work by the same factor of two.d) four times as much work.

13. If you push an object just as far while applying twice the force you do

a) half as much work.b) the same amount of work.

c) twice as much work.Work = force x distance

Work=forcex distance

Increasing the force by two also increased the work by the same factor of two.d) four times as much work.

14. Exert 4 N for a distance of 3 m in 2 s and you deliver a power of

a) 2.0 Wb) 4.0 W

c) 6.0 WP = W/t

P = [ ( 4 N ) ( 3 m ) ] / [ 2 s ]

P = 12 N m / 2 s

P = 12 J / 2 s

P = 6 Wd) 8.0 W

15. Exert 2,000 J of work in 50 s and your power output is

a) 5 Wb) 10 W

c) 20 W

d) 40 WP = W / t

P = 2,000 J / 50 s

P = 40 W

16. An object is raised above the ground gaining a certain amount
of potential energy. If the same object is raised **twice** as
high it gains

a) half as much energyb) the same amount of energy

c) twice as much energyPE = m g h

PE= m gh

Increasing h by a factor of 2 also increases PE by a factor of 2.d) four times as much energy

17. An object that has kinetic energy must be

a) elevatedb) falling

c) movingKE = (^{1}/_{2}) m v^{2}d) at rest

18. An object that has potential energy may have this energy because of its

a) speedb) acceleration

c) momentum

d) position

19. When a car is braked to a stop, its kinetic energy is transformed to

a) energy of motion

b) heat energyc) stopping energy

d) potential energy

20. For which position above does the ball on the end of the
string have the greatest **gravitational potential energy**?

a) PE = m g h

21. For which position above does the ball on the end of the
string have the greatest **kinetic energy**?

d) E_{total}= PE + KE = constantPE = min at position D

That means

KE = max at position D

22. A 10 kg sack is lifted 2 meters in the same time as a 5 kg sack is lifted 4 meters. The power expended in raising the 10 kg sack compared to the power used to lift the 5 kg sack is

a) half as much

b) the sameP = W / t

W_{1}= m g h_{1}= (10 kg) ( 10 m/s^{2}) ( 2 m) = 200 J

W_{2}= m g h_{2}= ( 5 kg) ( 10 m/s^{2}) ( 4 m) = 200 J

W_{1}= Wand_{2}t_{1}= 2_{2}

Therefore,

P_{1}= P_{2}c) twice as much

d) four times as much

23. A 3 kg mass is held 5 m above the ground. What is the
approximate **potential energy** of the mass with respect to the
ground?

a) 15 Jb) 75 J

c) 150 JPE = m g h

PE = ( 3 kg ) ( 10 m/s^{2 }) ( 5 m )

PE = 150 Jd) 300 J

24. A 5 kg mass has 50 J of potential energy with respect to the ground. Approximately how far is it located above the ground?

a) 0.5 m

b) 1 mPE = m g h

50 J = ( 5 kg ) ( 10 m/s^{2}) ( h )

50 J = ( 5 kg ) ( 10 m/s^{2}) ( 1 m )

h = 1 mc) 5 m

d) 10 m

25. A car moves 3 times as fast as another identical car. Compared to the slower car, the faster car has

a) the same kinetic energyb) 3 times the kinetic energy

c) 9 times the kinetic energyKE = (^{1}/_{2}) m v^{2}

KE_{1}= (^{1}/_{2}) m v_{1}^{2}

KE_{2}= (^{1}/_{2}) m ( 3 v_{1})^{2}

KE_{2}= 9 (^{1}/_{2}) m v_{1}^{2}

KE_{2}= 9 KE_{1}d) 27 times the kinetic energy

26. A car moving at 40 km/hr skids 20 m with locked brakes. How far will the car skid with locked brakes if it is traveling at 120 km/hr?

a) 60 mb) 90 m

c) 120 m

d) 180 mKE = (^{1}/_{2}) m v^{2}

Increasing the speed from 40 km/hr to 120 km/hr

is an increase in speed by a factor of three.

That means an increase in the KE by a factor of NINE.

Work = change in KE

This means the work done in bringing the car to a stop increases by a factor of NINE.

Work = force x distance

If the work increases by a factor of nine, the distance must also increase by a factor of nine.

27. When a rifle is fired it recoils so both the bullet and rifle are set in motion. The rifle and bullet ideally acquire equal but opposite amounts of

a) kinetic energy

b) momentumc) potential energy

d) all of the above

28. What does an object have when moving that it doesn`t have when at rest?

a) momentump = m vb) energy

It can have potential energy while it is at rest.c) mass

Italwayshas mass.d) all of the above

29. If an object has **kinetic energy**, then it also must
have

a) momentumb) velocity

c) speed

d) all of the above

30. According to Kepler's laws, the paths of planets about the Sun are

a) straight linesb) parabolas

c) ellipsesd) hyperbolas

31. According to Newton, the greater the masses of interacting objects, the

a) greater the force of gravity, by the product of the massesF = G m_{1}m_{2}/ r^{2}b) less the force of gravity

c) greater the force of gravity, by the square of the masses

d) less the force of gravity, inversely as the square of the masses

32. According to Newton, the greater the distance between masses of interacting objects, the

a) greater the force of gravity, proportional to the distanceb) less the force of gravity, inversely as the distance

c) greater the force of gravity, proportional to the square of the distance

d) less the force of gravity, inversely as the square of the distanceF = G m_{1}m_{2}/ r^{2}

33. If the **mass** of Earth somehow **de**creased with no
change in radius, your weight would

a) increase

b) decreaseF = G m_{1}m_{2}/ r^{2}c) stay the same

34. If the **radius** of Earth somehow **de**creased with no
change in mass, your weight would

a) increaseF = G m_{1}m_{2}/ r^{2}b) decrease

c) stay the same

35. If Earth's mass decreased to one-third its original mass with no change in radius, then your weight would

a) decrease to one-ninth its original value

b) decrease to one-third its original valueF = G m_{1}m_{2}/ r^{2}

Changing m_{1}to one-third its original value will change F to one-third its value.c) increase to nine times its original value

d) increase to three times its original value

36. The force of gravity acting on the Space Shuttle in orbit is nearly

a) zero

b) equal to the weight of the Space Shuttle at Earth's surfaceIn a low-Earth orbit, the value for r in Newton's Law of Gravity,

F = G m_{1}m_{2}/ r^{2}, is not much different than r at Earth's surface.c) about one-tenth its weight at Earth's surface

d) about one-one hundredth its weight at Earth's surface

37. A woman who normally weighs 500 N stands on top of a very tall ladder so she is one Earth radius above the earth's surface. How much would she weigh there?

a) zero

b) 125 NAt a distance of TWO Earth radii, her weight is one-fourth what it is at a distance of ONE Earth radius.c) 250 N

d) 500 N

38. The force of gravity acts on all apples on an apple tree. Some apples are twice as far from the ground as others. These twice- as-high apples, for the same mass, have practically

a) one-fourth the weightb) one-half the weight

c) the same weightThe distance r in F = G m_{1}m_{2}/ r^{2}is measured from the CENTER of Earth and that is nearly the same for all these apples!d) twice the weight

39. The planet Jupiter is about 300 times as massive as Earth, yet on its surface you would weigh only about 3 times as much. This is because

a) your mass is 100 times less on Jupiter.b) Jupiter is significantly farther from the sun.

c) Jupiter's radius is 10 times Earth's radius.d) you are 100 times more weightless there.

40. An industrial flywheel has a greater rotational inertia when most of its mass is

a) nearer the axis

b) nearer the rimc) spread out evenly

41. A hollow ring or hoop and a sphere roll down an incline starting at the same time. The one to reach the bottom first will be the

a) cylinder or ring or hoop

b) sphereFor the same mass and radius, the sphere has a smaller "rotational mass" (or moment of inertia), so it is EASIER to rotate.c) neither; they both reach the bottom at the same time

42. Put a pipe over the end of a wrench when trying to turn a
stubborn nut on a bolt, to effectively make the wrench handle
**twice** as long, you'll increase the torque by a factor of

a) twob) four

c) eight

d) sixteen

43. When a twirling ice skater extends her arms outward, her rotational speed

a) increases

b) decreasesExtending her arms INCREASES her rotational mass.

Angular momentum = (rotational mass) x (rotational speed)

Angular momentum = constant

(rotational mass) x (rotational speed) = (rotational mass) x (rotational speed)c) remains the same (ie, it is conserved).

44. To turn a stubborn screw, it is best to use a screwdriver that has a handle that is

a) long and thin

b) thick or widec) yellow

d) slippery

45. A 1-kg rock is suspended from the tip of a meter stick at the 0 cm mark so that the meter stick balances like a see-saw when the fulcrum is at the 25-cm mark. From this information, what is the mass of the meter stick?

a) 0.25 kgb) 0.50 kg

c) 1.00 kg.d) 2.00 kg

46. A car travels in a circle with constant speed. The net force on the car is

a) directed forward, in the direction of travel.

b) directed towards the center of the curveThis net force has a special name, the "centripetal" force.c) zero because the car is not accelerating.

d) directed outward, away from the center of the curve

47. A communications satellite appears stationary to an Earth-based observer. The orbit such a satellite is in is called a

a) low-Earth orbit.b) polar orbit.

c) geosynchronous orbit.d) high-Earth orbit.

48. As your kinetic energy is reduced to zero in an automobile crash, use of seat belts means a stopping force is applied to your body over a greater distance. This means the force on you is

a) less thanb) the same as

c) more than

if you were not wearing seat belts.

49. As you climb the first hill of a roller coaster, work is done by outside forces. At the top of that first hill, your velocity is nearly zero and you have maximum

a) momentum.b) kinetic energy.

c) potential energy.d) weight.

50. A diver does a double saumersalt and then extends his body so that his rotation nearly stops before going into the water. This is an example of conservation of

a) momentum.b) kinetic energy.

c) potential energy.

d) angular momentum.

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